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16.2.4 Element Display and Visibility

Calculated CSS values with calc() are supported in IE9 and in Firefox 4 (as -moz-calc()).

16.2.4 Element Display and Visibility

Two CSS properties affect the visibility of a document element: visibility and display. The visibility property is simple: when the property is set to the value hid den, the element is not shown; when it is set to the value visible, the element is shown. The display property is more general and is used to specify the type of display an item receives. It specifies whether an element is a block element, an inline element, a list item, or so on. When display is set to none, however, the affected element is not displayed, or even laid out, at all.

The difference between the visibilityand displaystyle properties has to do with their effect on elements that use static or relative positioning. For an element that appears in the normal layout flow, setting visibility to hidden makes the element invisible but reserves space for it in the document layout. Such an element can be repeatedly hidden and shown without changing the document layout. If an element’s display property is set to none, however, no space is allocated for it in the document layout; elements on either side of it close up as if it were not there. The display property is useful, for example, when creating expanding and collapsing outlines.

visibility and display have equivalent effects when used with absolute- or fixed-position elements because these elements are not part of the document layout. The visibilityproperty is generally preferred for hiding and showing positioned elements, however.

Note that it doesn’t make much sense to use visibility or displayto make an element invisible unless you are going to use JavaScript to dynamically set these properties and make the element visible at some point! We’ll see how to do this later in the chapter.

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