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8.1.1 Nested Functions

8.1.1 Nested Functions

In JavaScript, functions may be nested within other functions. For example:

function hypotenuse(a, b) {

function square(x) { return x*x; }

return Math.sqrt(square(a) + square(b));


The interesting thing about nested functions is their variable scoping rules: they can access the parameters and variables of the function (or functions) they are nested within. In the code above, for example, the inner function square() can read and write the parameters a and b defined by the outer function hypotenuse(). These scope rules for nested functions are very important, and we’ll consider them again in §8.6 .

As noted in §5.3.2 , function declaration statements are not true statements, and the ECMAScript specification only allows them as top-level statements. They can appear in global code, or within other functions, but they cannot appear inside of loops, conditionals, or try/catch/finally or with statements.1 Note that this restriction applies only to functions declared as statements. Function definition expressions may appear anywhere in your JavaScript code.

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