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5.5.1 while

5.5.1 while


Just as the if statement is JavaScript’s basic conditional, the while statement is JavaScript’s basic loop. It has the following syntax:

while (expression) statement

To execute a while statement, the interpreter first evaluates expression. If the value of the expression is falsy, then the interpreter skips over the statement that serves as the loop body and moves on to the next statement in the program. If, on the other hand, the expression is truthy, the interpreter executes the statement and repeats, jumping back to the top of the loop and evaluating expression again. Another way to say this is that the interpreter executes statement repeatedly while the expression is truthy. Note that you can create an infinite loop with the syntax while(true).

Usually, you do not want JavaScript to perform exactly the same operation over and over again. In almost every loop, one or more variables change with each iteration of the loop. Since the variables change, the actions performed by executing statementmay differ each time through the loop. Furthermore, if the changing variable or variables are involved in expression, the value of the expression may be different each time through the loop. This is important; otherwise, an expression that starts off truthy would never change, and the loop would never end! Here is an example of a while loop that prints the numbers from 0 to 9:

var count = 0;

while (count < 10) {

console.log(count);

count++;

}

As you can see, the variable count starts off at 0 and is incremented each time the body of the loop runs. Once the loop has executed 10 times, the expression becomes false (i.e., the variable count is no longer less than 10), the while statement finishes, and the interpreter can move on to the next statement in the program. Many loops have a counter variable like count. The variable names i, j, and k are commonly used as loop counters, though you should use more descriptive names if it makes your code easier to understand.

5.5 Loops | 97

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