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17.1.4 Touchscreen and Mobile Events

17.1.4 Touchscreen and Mobile Events

The widespread adoption of powerful mobile devices, particularly those with touchscreens, has required the creation of new categories of events. In many cases, touchscreen events are mapped to traditional event types such as click and scroll. But not every interaction with a touchscreen UI emulates a mouse, and not all touches can be treated as mouse events. This section briefly explains the gesture and touch events generated by Safari when running on Apple’s iPhone and iPad devices and also covers the orientationchange event generated when the user rotates the device. At the time of this writing, there are no standards for these events, but the W3C has begun work on a “Touch Events Specification” that uses Apple’s touch event as a starting point. These events are not documented in the reference section of this book, but you can find more information at the Apple Developer Center .

Safari generates gesture events for two-finger scaling and rotation gestures. The gesturestart event is fired when the gesture begins and gestureend is fired when it ends. Between these two events are a sequence of gesturechange events that track the progress of the gesture. The event object sent with these events has numeric scale and rotationproperties. The scale property is the ratio of the current distance between the two fingers to the initial distance between the fingers. A “pinch close” gesture has a scale less than 1.0, and a “pinch open” gesture has a scale greater than 1.0. The rotationproperty is the angle of finger rotation since the start of the event. It is reported in degrees, with positive values indicating clockwise rotation.

Gesture events are high-level events that notify you of a gesture that has already been interpreted. If you want to implement your own custom gestures, you can listen for low-level touch events. When a finger touches the screen a touchstart event is triggered. When the finger moves, a touchmove event is triggered. And when the finger is lifted from the screen, a touchend event is triggered. Unlike mouse events, touch events do not directly report the coordinates of the touch. Instead, the object sent with a touch event has a changedTouches property. This property is an array-like object whose elements each describe the position of a touch.

The orientationchanged event is triggered on the Window object by devices that allow the user to rotate the screen from portrait to landscape mode. The object passed with an orientationchanged event is not useful itself. In mobile Safari, however, the orientation property of the Window object gives the current orientation as one of the numbers 0, 90, 180, or -90.

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