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8.3.2 Variable-Length Argument Lists: The Arguments Object

8.3.2 Variable-Length Argument Lists: The Arguments Object

When a function is invoked with more argument values than there are parameter names, there is no way to directly refer to the unnamed values. The Arguments object provides a solution to this problem. Within the body of a function, the identifier arguments refers to the Arguments object for that invocation. The Arguments object is an array-like object (see §7.11 ) that allows the argument values passed to the function to be retrieved by number, rather than by name.

Suppose you define a function fthat expects to be passed one argument, x. If you invoke this function with two arguments, the first argument is accessible within the function by the parameter name x or as arguments[0]. The second argument is accessible only as arguments[1]. Furthermore, like true arrays, arguments has a length property that specifies the number of elements it contains. Thus, within the body of the function f, invoked with two arguments, arguments.length has the value 2.

The Arguments object is useful in a number of ways. The following example shows how you can use it to verify that a function is invoked with the expected number of arguments, since JavaScript doesn’t do this for you:

function f(x, y, z)


// First, verify that the right number of arguments was passed

if (arguments.length != 3) {

throw new Error("function f called with " + arguments.length +

"arguments, but it expects 3 arguments.");


// Now do the actual function...


Note that it is often unnecessary to check the number of arguments like this. JavaScript’s default behavior is fine in most cases: missing arguments are undefined and extra arguments are simply ignored.

One important use of the Arguments object is to write functions that operate on any number of arguments. The following function accepts any number of numeric arguments and returns the value of the largest argument it is passed (see also the built-in function Math.max(), which behaves the same way):

function max(/* ... */) {

var max = Number.NEGATIVE_INFINITY;

// Loop through the arguments, looking for, and remembering, the biggest.

for(var i = 0; i < arguments.length; i++)

if (arguments[i] > max) max = arguments[i];

// Return the biggest

return max;


var largest = max(1, 10, 100, 2, 3, 1000, 4, 5, 10000, 6); // => 10000

Functions like this one that can accept any number of arguments are called variadic functions, variable arity functions, or varargs functions. This book uses the most colloquial term, varargs, which dates to the early days of the C programming language.

Note that varargs functions need not allow invocations with zero arguments. It is perfectly reasonable to use the arguments[]object to write functions that expect some fixed number of named and required arguments followed by an arbitrary number of unnamed optional arguments.

Remember that arguments is not really an array; it is an Arguments object. Each Arguments object defines numbered array elements and a length property, but it is not technically an array; it is better to think of it as an object that happens to have some numbered properties. See §7.11 for more on array-like objects.

The Arguments object has one very unusual feature. In non-strict mode, when a function has named parameters, the array elements of the Arguments object are aliases for the parameters that hold the function arguments. The numbered elements of the Arguments object and the parameter names are like two different names for the same variable. Changing the value of an argument with an argument name changes the value that is retrieved through the arguments[] array. Conversely, changing the value of an argument through the arguments[] array changes the value that is retrieved by the argument name. Here is an example that clarifies this:

function f(x) {

console.log(x); // Displays the initial value of the argument

arguments[0] = null; // Changing the array element also changes x!

console.log(x); // Now displays "null"


This is emphatically not the behavior you would see if the Arguments object were an ordinary array. In that case, arguments[0] and x could refer initially to the same value, but a change to one would have no effect on the other.

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