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6.2.1 Objects As Associative Arrays

6.2.1 Objects As Associative Arrays

As explained above, the following two JavaScript expressions have the same value: object["property"]

The first syntax, using the dot and an identifier, is like the syntax used to access a static field of a struct or object in C or Java. The second syntax, using square brackets and a string, looks like array access, but to an array indexed by strings rather than by numbers. This kind of array is known as an associative array (or hash or map or dictionary). JavaScript objects are associative arrays, and this section explains why that is important.

In C, C++, Java, and similar strongly typed languages, an object can have only a fixed number of properties, and the names of these properties must be defined in advance. Since JavaScript is a loosely typed language, this rule does not apply: a program can create any number of properties in any object. When you use the . operator to access a property of an object, however, the name of the property is expressed as an identifier. Identifiers must be typed literally into your JavaScript program; they are not a datatype, so they cannot be manipulated by the program.

On the other hand, when you access a property of an object with the [] array notation, the name of the property is expressed as a string. Strings are JavaScript datatypes, so they can be manipulated and created while a program is running. So, for example, you can write the following code in JavaScript:

var addr = "";

for(i = 0; i < 4; i++) {

addr += customer["address" + i] + '\n';

This code reads and concatenates the address0, address1, address2, and address3 properties of the customer object.

This brief example demonstrates the flexibility of using array notation to access properties of an object with string expressions. The code above could be rewritten using the dot notation, but there are cases in which only the array notation will do. Suppose, for example, that you are writing a program that uses network resources to compute the current value of the user’s stock market investments. The program allows the user to type in the name of each stock she owns as well as the number of shares of each stock. You might use an object named portfolio to hold this information. The object has one property for each stock. The name of the property is the name of the stock, and the property value is the number of shares of that stock. So, for example, if a user holds 50 shares of stock in IBM, the property has the value 50.

Part of this program might be a function for adding a new stock to the portfolio:

function addstock(portfolio, stockname, shares) {

portfolio[stockname] = shares;


Since the user enters stock names at runtime, there is no way that you can know the property names ahead of time. Since you can’t know the property names when you write the program, there is no way you can use the . operator to access the properties of the portfolio object. You can use the [] operator, however, because it uses a string value (which is dynamic and can change at runtime) rather than an identifier (which is static and must be hardcoded in the program) to name the property.

Chapter 5 introduced the for/inloop (and we’ll see it again shortly in §6.5 ). The power of this JavaScript statement becomes clear when you consider its use with associative arrays. Here’s how you’d use it when computing the total value of a portfolio:

function getvalue(portfolio) {

var total = 0.0;

for(stock in portfolio) { // For each stock in the portfolio:

var shares = portfolio[stock]; // get the number of shares

var price = getquote(stock); // look up share price

total += shares * price; // add stock value to total value


return total; // Return total value.


6.2 Querying and Setting Properties | 121

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