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4.9.1 Equality and Inequality Operators

4.9.1 Equality and Inequality Operators

The == and === operators check whether two values are the same, using two different definitions of sameness. Both operators accept operands of any type, and both return true if their operands are the same and false if they are different. The === operator is known as the strict equality operator (or sometimes the identity operator), and it checks whether its two operands are “identical” using a strict definition of sameness. The == operator is known as the equality operator; it checks whether its two operands are “equal” using a more relaxed definition of sameness that allows type conversions.

JavaScript supports =, ==, and === operators. Be sure you understand the differences between these assignment, equality, and strict equality operators, and be careful to use the correct one when coding! Although it is tempting to read all three operators “equals,” it may help to reduce confusion if you read “gets or is assigned” for =, “is equal to” for ==, and “is strictly equal to” for ===.

The != and !== operators test for the exact opposite of the == and === operators. The !=inequality operator returns falseif two values are equal to each other according to ==and returns trueotherwise. The !==operator returns falseif two values are strictly equal to each other and returns true otherwise. As you’ll see in §4.10 , the ! operator computes the Boolean NOT operation. This makes it easy to remember that != and !== stand for “not equal to” and “not strictly equal to.”

As mentioned in §3.7 , JavaScript objects are compared by reference, not by value. An object is equal to itself, but not to any other object. If two distinct objects have the same number of properties, with the same names and values, they are still not equal. Two arrays that have the same elements in the same order are not equal to each other.

The strict equality operator === evaluates its operands, and then compares the two values as follows, performing no type conversion:

4.9 Relational Expressions | 71

The equality operator == is like the strict equality operator, but it is less strict. If the values of the two operands are not the same type, it attempts some type conversions and tries the comparison again:

Any other combinations of values are not equal. As an example of testing for equality, consider the comparison:

"1" == true

This expression evaluates to true, indicating that these very different-looking values are in fact equal. The boolean value true is first converted to the number 1, and the comparison is done again. Next, the string "1"is converted to the number 1. Since both values are now the same, the comparison returns true.

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