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3.8.2 Explicit Conversions

Although JavaScript performs many type conversions automatically, you may some-
times need to perform an explicit conversion, or you may prefer to make the conversions
explicit to keep your code clearer.
The simplest way to perform an explicit type conversion is to use the  Boolean(),
Number(), String(), or Object() functions. We’ve already seen these functions as con-
structors for wrapper objects (in §3.6). When invoked without the new operator, how-
ever, they work as conversion functions and perform the conversions summarized in
Table 3-2:
Number("3")           // => 3
String(false)         // => "false"  Or use false.toString()
Boolean([])           // => true
Object(3)             // => new Number(3)
Note that any value other than null or undefined has a toString() method and the
result of this method is usually the same as that returned by the String() function. Also
note that Table 3-2 shows a TypeError if you attempt to convert null or undefined to
an object. The Object() function does not throw an exception in this case: instead it

simply returns a newly created empty object.

Certain JavaScript operators perform implicit type conversions, and are sometimes
used for the purposes of type conversion. If one operand of the + operator is a string,
it converts the other one to a string. The unary + operator converts its operand to a
number. And the unary ! operator converts its operand to a boolean and negates it.
These facts lead to the following type conversion idioms that you may see in some code:
x + ""           // Same as String(x)
+x               // Same as Number(x).  You may also see x-0
!!x              // Same as Boolean(x). Note double !
Formatting and parsing numbers are common tasks in computer programs and Java-
Script has specialized functions and methods that provide more precise control over
number-to-string and string-to-number conversions.
The toString() method defined by the Number class accepts an optional argument
that specifies a radix, or base, for the conversion. If you do not specify the argument,
the conversion is done in base 10. However, you can also convert numbers in other
bases (between 2 and 36). For example:
var n = 17;
binary_string = n.toString(2);        // Evaluates to "10001"
octal_string = "0" + n.toString(8);   // Evaluates to "021"
hex_string = "0x" + n.toString(16);   // Evaluates to "0x11"
When working with financial or scientific data, you may want to convert numbers to
strings in ways that give you control over the number of decimal places or the number
of significant digits in the output, or you may want to control whether exponential
notation is used. The Number class defines three methods for these kinds of number-
to-string conversions. toFixed() converts a number to a string with a specified number
of digits after the decimal point. It never uses exponential notation. toExponential()
converts a number to a string using exponential notation, with one digit before the
decimal point and a specified number of digits after the decimal point (which means
that the number of significant digits is one larger than the value you specify). toPreci
sion() converts a number to a string with the number of significant digits you specify.
It uses exponential notation if the number of significant digits is not large enough to
display the entire integer portion of the number. Note that all three methods round the
trailing digits or pad with zeros as appropriate. Consider the following examples:
var n = 123456.789;
n.toFixed(0);         // "123457"
n.toFixed(2);         // "123456.79"
n.toFixed(5);         // "123456.78900"
n.toExponential(1);   // "1.2e+5"
n.toExponential(3);   // "1.235e+5"
n.toPrecision(4);     // "1.235e+5"
n.toPrecision(7);     // "123456.8"
n.toPrecision(10);    // "123456.7890"
If you pass a string to the Number() conversion function, it attempts to parse that string
as an integer or floating-point literal. That function only works for base-10 integers,
and does not allow trailing characters that are not part of the literal. The parseInt()
and parseFloat() functions (these are global functions, not methods of any class) are
more flexible. parseInt() parses only integers, while parseFloat() parses both integers
and floating-point numbers. If a string begins with “0x” or “0X”, parseInt() interprets
it as a hexadecimal number.
2
 Both parseInt() and parseFloat() skip leading white-
space, parse as many numeric characters as they can, and ignore anything that follows.
If the first nonspace character is not part of a valid numeric literal, they return NaN:
parseInt("3 blind mice")     // => 3
parseFloat(" 3.14 meters")   // => 3.14
parseInt("-12.34")           // => -12
parseInt("0xFF")             // => 255
parseInt("0xff")             // => 255
parseInt("-0XFF")            // => -255
parseFloat(".1")             // => 0.1
parseInt("0.1")              // => 0
parseInt(".1")               // => NaN: integers can't start with "."
parseFloat("$72.47");        // => NaN: numbers can't start with "$"
parseInt() accepts an optional second argument specifying the radix (base) of the
number to be parsed. Legal values are between 2 and 36. For example:
parseInt("11", 2);           // => 3 (1*2 + 1)
parseInt("ff", 16);          // => 255 (15*16 + 15)
parseInt("zz", 36);          // => 1295 (35*36 + 35)
parseInt("077", 8);          // => 63 (7*8 + 7)
parseInt("077", 10);         // => 77 (7*10 + 7)


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