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13.4 Compatibility and Interoperability

13.4 Compatibility and Interoperability


The web browser is the operating system for web apps, but the web is a heterogeneous environment and your web documents and applications will be viewed and run in browsers of different ages (from cutting-edge beta releases to decade-old browsers like IE6) from different vendors (Microsoft, Mozilla, Apple, Google, Opera) running on different operating systems (Windows, Mac OS, Linux, iPhone OS, Android). It is challenging to write nontrivial client-side JavaScript programs that run correctly on such a wide variety of platforms.

Client-side JavaScript compatibility and interoperability issues fall into three general categories:

Evolution

The web platform is always evolving and expanding. A standards body proposes a new feature or API. If the feature seems useful, browser vendors implement it. If enough vendors implement it interoperably, developers begin to use and depend on the feature, and it secures a permanent place in the web platform. Sometimes browser vendors and web developers take the lead and standards bodies write the official version well after the feature is already a de facto standard. In either case, a new feature has been added to the Web. New browsers support it and old browsers do not. Web developers are pulled between wanting to use powerful new features and wanting their web pages to be usable by the largest number of visitors—even those who are not using the latest browsers.

Nonimplementation

Sometimes browser vendors differ in their opinions of whether a particular feature is useful enough to implement. Some vendors implement it and others do not. This is not a matter of current browsers with the feature versus older browsers without it, but a matter of browser implementors who prioritized the feature versus those who did not. IE8, for example, does not support theelement, though all other browsers have embraced it. A more egregious example is Microsoft’s decision not to implement the DOM Level 2 Events specification (which defines addEventListener() and related methods). This specification was standardized almost a decade ago, and other browser vendors have long since supported it.3

Bugs

Every browser has bugs, and none implement all of the client-side JavaScript APIs exactly as specified. Sometimes, writing compatible client-side JavaScript code is a matter of being aware of, and knowing how to work around, the bugs in existing browsers.

Fortunately, the JavaScript language itself is interoperably implemented by all browser vendors and is not a source of compatibility problems. All browsers have interoperable implementations of ES3, and, at the time of this writing, all vendors are working on

3. To Microsoft’s credit, IE9 now supports both theelement and the addEventListener() method.

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implementing ES5. The transition between ES3 and ES5 may be the source of compatibility problems, because some browsers will support strict mode while others do not, but the expectation is that browser vendors will implement ES5 interoperably.

The first step in addressing compatibility issues in client-side JavaScript is to be aware of what those issues are. The web browser release cycle is about three times as rapid as the release cycle for this book, which means that this book cannot reliably tell you which versions of which browser implement which features, much less describe the bugs in or the quality of implementation of the features in various browsers. Details like this are best left to the Web. The HTML5 standardization effort aims to eventually produce a test suite. At the time of this writing, no such tests exist, but once they do, they ought to provide a wealth of browser compatibility information. In the meantime, here are some websites you might find useful:

https://developer.mozilla.org

The Mozilla Developer Center

http://msdn.microsoft.com

The Microsoft Developer Network

http://developer.apple.com/safari

The Safari Dev Center at the Apple Developer Connection

http://code.google.com/doctype

Google describes its Doctype project as “an encyclopedia of the open web.” This user-editable site includes extensive compatibility tables for client-side JavaScript. At the time of this writing, these tables report only on the existence of various properties and methods in each browser: they do not actually say whether those features work correctly.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(HTML_5)

A Wikipedia article tracking the implementation status of HTML5 features and APIs in various browsers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(Document_Object_Mod el)

A similar article that tracks the implementation status of DOM features.

http://a.deveria.com/caniuse

The “When can I use...” website tracks the implementation status of important web features, allows them to be filtered according to various criteria, and recommends their use once there are few remaining deployed browsers that do not support the feature.

http://www.quirksmode.org/dom

Tables that list the compatibility of various browsers with the W3C DOM.

http://webdevout.net/browser-support

Another site that attempts to track the implementation of web standards by browser vendors.

Note that the last three sites listed are maintained by individuals. Despite the dedication of these client-side JavaScript heroes, these sites may not always be up to date.

Awareness of the incompatibilities between browsers is only the first step, of course. Next, you must decide how to address the incompatibilities. One strategy is to restrict yourself to using only those features that are universally supported (or easily emulated) by all of the browsers that you choose to support. The “When can I use...” website mentioned previously ( http://a.deveria.com/caniuse ) is based around this strategy: it lists a number of features that will become usable as soon as IE6 has been phased out and no longer has a significant market share. The subsections that follow explain a few less passive strategies you can use to work around client-side incompatibilities.

A Word about “Current Browsers”

Client-side JavaScript is a moving target, especially with the advent of ES5 and HTML5. Because the platform is evolving rapidly, I shy away from making narrow statements about particular versions of particular browsers: any such claims are likely to be outdated well before a new edition of this book appears. You’ll find, therefore, that I often hedge my statements with purposely vague language like “all current browsers” (or sometimes “all current browsers except IE”). To put this in context, while I was writing this chapter, the current (non-beta) browsers were:

When this book reaches bookstores, the current browsers will likely be Internet Explorer 9, Firefox 4, Safari 5, Chrome 11, and Opera 11.

This is not a guarantee that every statement in this book about “current browsers” is true for each of these specific browsers. However, it allows you to know what browsers were current technology when this book was written.

The fifth edition of this book used the phrase “modern browsers” instead of “current browsers.” That edition was published in 2006, when the current browsers were Firefox 1.5, IE6, Safari 2, and Opera 8.5 (the Chrome browser from Google did not exist yet). Any references to “modern browsers” remaining in this book can now be taken to mean “all browsers,” since browsers older than those are now quite rare.

Many of the newest client-side features described in this book (in Chapter 22 particularly) are not yet implemented by all browsers. The features that I’ve chosen to document in this edition are being developed under an open standards process, have been implemented in at least one released browser, are under development in at least one more, and seem likely to be adopted by all browser vendors (with the possible exception of Microsoft).

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