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9.4 Augmenting Classes

9.4 Augmenting Classes

JavaScript’s prototype-based inheritance mechanism is dynamic: an object inherits properties from its prototype, even if the prototype changes after the object is created. This means that we can augment JavaScript classes simply by adding new methods to their prototype objects. Here is code that adds a method for computing the complex conjugate to the Complex class of Example 9-3 :

// Return a complex number that is the complex conjugate of this one. Complex.prototype.conj = function() { return new Complex(this.r, -this.i); };

The prototype object of built-in JavaScript classes is also “open” like this, which means that we can add methods to numbers, strings, arrays, functions, and so on. We did this in Example 8-5 when we added a bind() method to the function class in ECMAScript 3 implementations where it did not already exist:

if (!Function.prototype.bind) { Function.prototype.bind = function(o /*, args */) {

// Code for the bind method goes here... }; }

Here are some other examples:

// Invoke the function f this many times, passing the iteration number // For example, to print "hello" 3 times: // var n = 3; // n.times(function(n) { console.log(n + " hello"); }); Number.prototype.times = function(f, context) {

var n = Number(this); for(var i = 0; i < n; i++), i); };

// Define the ES5 String.trim() method if one does not already exist. // This method returns a string with whitespace removed from the start and end. String.prototype.trim = String.prototype.trim || function() {

if (!this) return this; // Don't alter the empty string return this.replace(/^\s+|\s+$/g, ""); // Regular expression magic };

// Return a function's name. If it has a (nonstandard) name property, use it. // Otherwise, convert the function to a string and extract the name from that. // Returns an empty string for unnamed functions like itself. Function.prototype.getName = function() {

return || this.toString().match(/function\s*([^(]*)\(/)[1]; };

It is possible to add methods to Object.prototype, making them available on all objects. This is not recommended, however, because prior to ECMAScript 5, there is no way to make these add-on methods nonenumerable, and if you add properties to totype, those properties will be reported by all for/in loops. In §9.8.1 we’ll see an example of using the ECMAScript 5 method Object.defineProperty() to safely augment Object.prototype.

It is implementation-dependent whether classes defined by the host environment (such as the web browser) can be augmented in this way. In many web browsers, for example, you can add methods to HTMLElement.prototype and those methods will be inherited by the objects that represent the HTML tags in the current document. This does not work in current versions of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, however, which severely limits the utility of this technique for client-side programming.

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